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Bibliography – General

 •  New and Recent (since 2012)
 •  The Office: Powers and Roles of Governors
 •  Becoming Governor: Gubernatorial Campaigns and Elections
 •  Public Perception: Gubernatorial Job Approval Ratings
 •  State Constitutions and the Judiciary

New and Recent (since 2012)

  • Ambar, Saladin. (2012). How Governors Built the Modern American Presidency. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Ambar, Saladin. (2014). The Rise of Sunbelt Governors: Conservative Outsiders in the White House. Presidential Studies Quarterly. March. 44: 72-94.
  • Birkner, Michael J., Donald Linky, and Peter Mickulas, eds. (2014). The Governors of New Jersey: Biographical Essays. Rutgers University Press.
  • Brown, Adam R.. (2012). The Item Veto’s Sting. State Politics & Policy Quarterly.  June. 12: 183-203.
  • Brown, Adam R.. (2013). Does Money Buy Votes? The Case of Self-Financed Gubernatorial Candidates, 1998-2008. Political Behavior. March. 35(1): 21-42.
  • Herrera, Richard and Shafer, Karen. (2012). “Women in the Governor’s Mansion: How Party and Gender Affect Policy Agendas”. In Women & Executive Office: Pathways and Performance, ed. Melody Rose and Lynne Rienner.
  • Kousser, Thad and Phillips, Justin. (2012). The Power of American Governors: Winning on Budgets and Losing on Policy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Krupnikov, Yanna and Shipan, Charles. (2012).  Measuring Gubernatorial Budgetary Power: A New Approach.  State Politics & Policy Quarterly. December. 12: 438-455.
  • Nolette, Paul. “Gubernatorial Power and the Nationalization of State Politics.” 49 Tulsa L. Rev. 279 (2013). Link
  • Roberts, Barbara. (2011) Up the Capitol Steps: A Woman’s March to the Governorship. Corvallis, OR. Oregon State University Press.
  • Rosenthal, Alan. (2012). The Best Job in Politics: Exploring How Governors Succeed as Policy Leaders. Washington, DC. CQ Press.

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The Office:  Powers and Roles of Governors

  • Abney, G. (1987). Perceptions of the impact of governors and legislatures in the state appropriation process. Western Political Quarterly 40, 335-342.
  • Abney, Greg, & Lauth, Thomas P. (1983). The governor as chief administrator. Public Administration Review, 43, 40-49.
  • Abney, Glenn, & Lauth, Thomas P. (1995). The line item veto in the states: an instrument for fiscal restraint or an instrument for partisanship?. Public Administration Review, 45, 372-379.
  • Abney, Glenn, & Lauth, Thomas P. (1997). The item veto and fiscal responsibility. Journal of Politics, 59, 882-892.
  • Ambar, Saladin. (2012). How Governors Built the Modern American Presidency. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Barrilleaux, Charles, & Berkman, Michael. (2003). Do governors matter? Budgeting rules and the politics of state policymaking. Political Research Quarterly, 56(4), 409-417.
  • Behn, Robert D.  (1991).  Governors on Governing.  Lanham, Maryland.  University Press of America.
  • Berman, D. (1975). State and local politics. Boston: Holbrook Press.
  • Bernick, Emil L. (1976). “The Role of the Governor in the Legislative Process: A comparative State Analysis,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma.
  • Bernick, Emil L. (1978). The impact of U.S. governors on party voting in one-party dominated legislatures. Comparative Legislative Research Center, 3(3), 431-444.
  • Bernick, E. Lee. (1979). Gubernatorial tools: Formal vs. informal. Journal of Politics, 41, 656-665.
  • Bernick, E. Lee, & Wiggins, Charles W. (1981). Executive-legislative power relationships. American Politics Quarterly, 9, 467-477.
  • Berry, William D., Ringquist, Evan J., Fording , Richard C., & Hanson, Russell L. (1998). Measuring citizen and government ideology in the American states, 1960 – 1993. American Journal of Political Science, 42(1), 327-348.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1968). The governor’s formal powers: A view from the governor’s chair. Public Administration Review, 28, 540-545.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1983). Quips and quotes from old governors to new. Public Administration Review, 43(3), 268-270.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1988). The governor as innovator in the federal system. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 18, 133-154.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1989). From governor to governors. In C. VanHorn (Ed.), The State of States Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1992). Governors and hard times. Washington D.C: CQ Press.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1995). Enhancing executive leadership in the states. State and Local Review27 (1), 18-35.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1999). The governors. Virginia Gray, Russel L. Handson and Herbert Jacob (Ed.), Politics in the American States, 7th Ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Press.
  • Beyle Thad L. (2007). Gubernatorial Power: The Institutional Power Ratings for the 50 Governors of the United States. University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill. http://www.unc.edu/~beyle/gubnewpwr.html
  • Beyle, Thad L., and Robert Dalton (1981). Appointment power: Does it belong to the governor? State Government 54: 2-12
  • Beyle Thad, and Margaret Ferguson. (2008). “Governors and the Executive Branch.” In Politics in the American States. 9th ed., eds. Gray, Hanson . Washington, DC: CQ Press, 192-228.
  • Beyle, Thad L., and Lynn R. Muchmore, eds. (1983).  Being governor: The view from the office.  Durham, NC: Duke Press Policy Studies.
  • Biggart, NW, & Hamilton , GG. (1984). Governor Reagan, Governor Brown: A sociology of executive power. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Bowman, Ann, Woods, Neal D., & Stark, Milton R. (2010). Governors turn pro: Separation of powers and the institutionalization of the American governorship. Political Research Quarterly, 63 , 304-315.
  • Brace, Paul. (1993). State Government and Economic Performance. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Brace, Paul & A. Jewett. (1995). The state of state politics research. Political Research Quaterly,48(3), 643-681.
  • Brooks, Clayton McClure (2008). A Legacy of Leadership: Governors and American History. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Brooks, Glenn E. (1961). When Governors Convene: The Governors’ Conference and National Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Brown, Adam R.. (2012). The Item Veto’s Sting. State Politics & Policy Quarterly.  June. 12: 183-203.
  • Buckley, John T. (2005) The Governor – From figurehead to prime minister: A historical study of the New York state constitution and the shift of basic power to the chief executive.  Albany Law Review.  (68) 865-907.
  • Budig, Gene A. (1969).  Governors and Higher Education: An Examination of Gubernatorial Views on Major Issues in Higher Education. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.
  • Clarke, Wes. (1998). Divided Government and Budget Conflict in the U.S. States. Legislative Studies Quarterly. 23:5–22.
  • Clynch, Edward J., & Lauth, Thomas P. (1991). Governors, legislatures, and budgets: Diversity across the American states. New York City: Greenwood Press.
  • Coffey, Daniel. (2005). Measuring Gubernatorial Ideology: A Content Analysis of State of the State Speeches. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. March. 5: 88-103.
  • Cook, Elizabeth A, Jelem, Ted G., & Wilcox, Clyde. (1994). Issue voting in gubernatorial elections: Abortion and post-Webster politics. The Journal of Politics, 56(1), 187-199.
  • Cook, Rhodes, & West, Stacey. (1979). 1978 gubernatorial contests: Incumbents, winners hold money advantage. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 37, 1755-58.
  • Coward, Andrew T. (1973). Electoral choice in the American states: Incumbency effects, partisan forces, and divergent partisan majorities. American Political Science Review 67:835-53.
  • Craig, Stephen C., Kane, James G., & Gainous, Jason. (2005). Issue-related learning in a gubernatorial campaign: A panel study. Political Communication, 22(4), 483-503.
  • Crew, RE. (1998). Gubernatorial leadership: testing a preliminary model. Social Science Journal36(1), 15-27.
  • Dilger, Robert Jay. (1995). A comparative analysis of gubernatorial enabling resources. State and Local Government Review, 27, 118-126.
  • Dilger, Robert Jay, Krause, George A., & Moffett, Randolph R. (1995). State legislative professionalism and gubernatorial effectiveness, 1978-1991. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 20(4), 553-571.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C. (1979). Measuring gubernatorial power. Journal of Politics, 41, 589-610.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C. (1987). Changing gubernatorial power: The measure vs. reality. Western Political Quarterly, 40, 319-28.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C. (1987). Reply. Western Political Quarterly, 40, 333-334.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C.. (1999). “Governors: Their Heritage and Future,” in Ronald Weber and Paul Brace (eds.), American State and Local Politics: Directions for the 21st Century, Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers, pp. 38-70.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C.. (2002). “Governors.” In Oxford Companion to American Law, ed. Kermit Hall. New York: Oxford University Press: 345-47.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C.. (2005). “Governors: History and Context. Government, Law, and Policy Journal. 7:2 (Winter): 8-10.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C.. (2002). “Gubernatorial Popularity and Administrative Influence,” State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 2:3 (Fall), pp. 251-267.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C.. (1979). “The Efficacy of a Governor’s Formal Powers,” State Government. Summer, pp. 121-125.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C. and Wright, Deil S.. (2010). “Governors, Legislatures, and State Budgets Across time.” Political Research Quarterly. 63:4 (December): 783-95.
  • Fairlie, John A. (1912).  The State Governor.  Michigan Law Review.  (10), 370- 383.
  • Fairlie, John A. (1912).  The State Governor: Administrative Powers.  Michigan Law Review, (10) 458-475.
  • Fairlie, John A. (1917). The Veto Power of the State Governor.  The American Political Science Review.  11(3), 473-493.
  • Ferguson, Margaret Robertson. (2003). Chief executive success in the legislative arena. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 3, 158-182.
  • Fisher, Patrick, & Nice, David. (2005). Staffing the governor’s office: A comparative analysis. In The Book of the States 2005. Lexington, Kentucky: Council of State Governments.
  • Flentje, E.H. (1981). The governor as a manager: A political assessment. State Government , 54, 76-80.
  • Forsythe, Dall W. (2004).  Memos to the Governor: An Introduction to State Budgeting. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
  • Gantt, F. (1964). The chief executive in Texas: A study in gubernatorial leadership. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Garnett, James L. (1979). Strategies for governors who want to reorganize. State Government, (Summer), 135-143.
  • Germond, Jack W., & Witcover, Jules. (1994). Governors want money, not strings. National Journal, 26(November), 2799.
  • Goodman, Doug. (2007). Determinants of perceived gubernatorial budgetary influence among state executive budget analysts and legislative fiscal analysts. Political Research Quarterly, 60(1), 43-54.
  • Gove, Samuel K. (1964). Why strong governors? National Civic Review, 53(March), 131-136.
  • Grady, Dennis O. (1984). American governors and state-federal relations. State Government, 57, 106-112.
  • Grady, Dennis O. (1988). Governors and markets: Corporate recruitment from the gubernatorial perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Grady, Dennis O.  (1991). “Managing the State Economy: The Governor’s Role in Policymaking.”   In Gubernatorial Leadership and State Policy, ed. Erick B. Herzik and Brent W. Brown. Westport: Greenwood.
  • Greene, E.B. (1898). Provincial governors in the English colonies of North America. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan University Press.
  • Gross, Donald A. (1989). Governors and policymaking: Theoretical concerns and analytic approaches. Policy Studies Journal, 17, 764-787.
  • Hall, TE. (2002). Changes in legislative support for the governor’s program over time. Legislative Studies Quarterly27(1), 107-122.
  • Hebert, F. Ted, Brudney, Jeffrey L. , & Wright, Deil S. . (1983). Gubernatorial influence and state bureaucracy. American Politics Quarterly, 11, 243-264.
  • Herrera, Richard and Shafer, Karen. (2012). “Women in the Governor’s Mansion: How Party and Gender Affect Policy Agendas”. In Women & Executive Office: Pathways and Performance, ed. Melody Rose and Lynne Rienner.
  • Herzik, Eric B. (1991). Policy agendas and gubernatorial leadership. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Herzik, Eric B, & Brown, Brent W. eds (1991). Gubernatorial leadership and state policy. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Herzik, GL, & Wiggins, CW. (1989). Governors vs. legislatures: Vetoes, overrides, and policy making in the American states. Policy Studies Journal17, 841-862.
  • Hoyt, P., & Gentry, R. (1976). News media of the Texas government. Public Affairs Comment, 22, 1-7.
  • Isom, Warren Rex. (1938). The office of lieutenant-governor in the states. The American Political Science Review, 32(5), 921-926.
  • Jewell, Malcolm E. (1968). “State Decision-Making: The Governor Revisited,” in Aaron Widalvsky and Nelson W. Polsby, eds., American Governmental Institutions. Chicago: Rand McNally, 545-565.
  • Jewell, Malcolm E. (1982). The neglected world of state politics. The Journal of Politics, 44(3), 638-657.
  • Kallenbach, Joseph. (1966). The American chief executives: The presidency and governorships. New York, NY: Harper and Row Publishing.
  • Kaplan, Marshall and Sue O’Brien. (1991). The Governors and the New Federalism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Kettleborough, Charles. (1917). Powers of the lieutenant-governor. The American Political Science Review, 11(1), 88-92.
  • Kincaid, J. 1984. The American governor in international affairs. Publius. Fall: 95-114.
  • Klarner , CE, & Karch, A. (2008). Why do governors issue vetoes? The impact of individual and institutional influences. Political Research Quarterly61(4), 574-584.
  • Kousser, Thad and Phillips, Justin. (2009). Who Blinks First? Legislative Patience and Bargaining with Governors. Legislative Studies Quarterly 34(1):55-86.
  • Kousser, Thad and Phillips, Justin. (2012). The Power of American Governors: Winning on Budgets and Losing on Policy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Krane , D. D. (1993). American federalism, state governments, and public policy: Weaving together loose theoretical threads. PS: Political Science and Politics, 26, 186-190.
  • Krupnikov, Yanna and Charles Shipan. (2012).  Measuring Gubernatorial Budgetary Power: A New Approach.  State Politics & Policy Quarterly. December. 12: 438-455.
  • Labaree, Leonard Woods. (1964). Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing.
  • Lipson, Leslie. (1939). The American governor from figurehead to leader. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Mathews, John M. (1912). The new role of the governor. The American Political Science Review, 6(2), 216-228.
  • McCally, Sarah P. 1966. The governor and his legislative party. American Political Science Review 60 (December, 1966) : 923-942
  • McGeary, M. Nelson. (1947). The governor’s veto in Pennsylvania. The American Political Science Review, 41(5), 941-946.
  • Morehouse, Sarah McCally. (1976). “The governor as political leader.” In Herbert Jacob and Kenneth N. Vines (Ed.), Politics in the American States, 3rd Ed (pp. 196-241). Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Morehouse, Sarah McCally. (1998). The governor as party leader. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan University Press.
  • Morehouse, Sarah McCally. (1981).  State politics, parties, and policy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Morehouse, Sarah McCally. (1996). Legislative party voting for the governor’s program.  Legislative Studies Quarterly.  21 (3), 359-381.
  • Morehouse, Sarah McCally. (1998). The governor as party leader. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Mueller, Keith J. (1985). Explaining variation and change in gubernatorial powers, 1960-1982. Western Political Quarterly, 38, 424-431.
  • Muchmore, L. (1981). The governor as a manager. State Government, 54, 71-75.
  • Muchmore, L, & Beyle, Thad. (1980). The governor as party leader. State Government53, 121-124.
  • Muellar, Keith J. (1985). Explaining variation and change in gubernatorial powers. Western Political Quarterly38, 433-444.
  • Mueller, Keith J. (1987). A rejoinder, 1960-1982. Western Political Quarterly, 40, 329-331.
  • Orth, DA. (2001). Accountability in a federal system: The governor, the president, and economic expectations: State Politics & Policies Quarterly1, 412-432.
  • Osborne, David. (1988).  Laboratories of Democracy: A New Breed of Governor Creates Models for National Growth. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  • Oxley, Zoe M., & Fox, Richard L. (2004). Women in executive office: variation across American states. Political Research Quarterly, 57(1), 113-120.
  • Prescott, F. W. (1950). The executive veto in the American states. Western Political Quarterly, 3, 98-112.
  • Ramsone, Jr, Coleman B. (1951) The office of governor in the South.  Montgomery, AL: University of Alabama.
  • Ransone, Jr, Coleman B. (1956). The office of the governor in the United States. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
  • Ramsone, Jr, Coleman B. (1982). The American governorship.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Reisinger, Tyler. (2008). “Beyond Beyle: Assessing the Measurement of Institutional and Informal Gubernatorial Powers.” MA Thesis.
  • Ries, John C. (l969).  Executives in the American Political System.  Belmont, CA: Dickenson Publishing Co.
  • Robson, William A. (1964).  The Governors and the Governed. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
  • Rosenthal, Alan. (2012). The Best Job in Politics: Exploring How Governors Succeed as Policy Leaders.  Washington, DC. CQ Press.
  • Rosenthal , Alan. (1990). Governors and legislatures: Contending powers. Washington D.C: CQ Press.
  • Rudolph, Thomas. (2003). Institutional Context and the Assignment of Political Responsibility. The Journal of Politics. 65:190–215.
  • Sabato, Larry. (1978). Goodbye to good-time Charlie. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.
  • Sanford, Terry. (1967). Storm over the states. New York City: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Schlesinger, Joseph A. (1957). How they became governor. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.
  • Schlesinger, Joseph A. (1965). “The politics of the executive.” Herbert Jacob and Kenneth N. Vines (Ed.), Politics in the American States (pp. 217-232). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Sharkansky, Ira. (1968). Agency requests, gubernatorial support, and budget success in state legislatures. The American Political Science Review, 26, 1220-1231.
  • Sigelman, Lee, & Smith, Roland. (1981). Personal, office and state characteristics as predictors of gubernatorial performance. Journal of Politics, 43, 169-180.
  • Sigelman, Lee, & Dometrius, Nelson C. (1988). Governors as chief administrators: The linkage between formal powers and informal influence. American Politics Quarterly, 16, 157-170.
  • Soloman, S.R. (1981). Governors: 1970-1980. National Civic Review, 70(3), 120-155
  • Sribnick, Ethan G. (2008). A Legacy of Innovation: Governors and Public Policy. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Teaford, John C. (2002). The rise of the states: Evolution of American state government. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Thompson, Joel A. (1987). Agency requests, gubernatorial support, and budget success in state legislatures revisited. Journal of Politics, 49(3), 756-779.
  • Turner, Robert C.. (2003)The Political Economy of Gubernatorial Smokestack Chasing: Bad Policy and Bad Politics? State Politics & Policy Quarterly. September. 3: 270-293.
  • Van Assendelft, Laura A. (1997). Governors, Agenda Setting, and Divided Government.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  • Weeks, George. (1982). A statehouse hall of fame. State Government, 55, 67-73.
  • Weinberg, M. (1977). Managing the state. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press.
  • Weinberg, Micah. (2010) Measuring Governors’ Political Orientations Using Words as Data. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. March. 10: 96-109.
  • Wells, Roger H. (1924). The item veto and state budget reform. The American Political Science Review, 18(4), 782-791.
  • Wilkins, Vicky M., & Young, Garry. (2002). The influence of governors on veto override attempts: A test of pivotal politics. Comparative Legislative Research Center, 27(4), 557-575.
  • Williams, G. Mennen 1961. A Governor’s Notes.  Ann Arbor, Michigan: Institute of Public Administration
  • William, J. O. (1972). Changing perspectives on the American governor. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Winder, David W. and David Hill. (2006). The Governor and the Lieutenant Governor: Forms of Cooperation between Two State Executives. Politics & Policy. 34 (3), pp. 634–656
  • Wright, D.S. (1967). Executive leadership in state administration. Midwest Journal of Political Science, 11, 3-26.
  • Wyman, A.C, & Sherwood, Grace Mabel. (1907). The veto power in the several states. . Rhode Island State Library: Legislative Reference Bureau.
  • Wyner , A.J. (1968). Gubernatorial relations with legislators and administrators. State Government, Summer(4), 199-203.

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Becoming Governor:  Gubernatorial Campaigns and Elections

  • Adams, James D, & Kenney, Lawrence W. (1989). The retention of state governors. Public Choice62, 1-13.
  • Alexander, Herbert E. (1980). Financing gubernatorial election campaigns. State Government, 53, 140-143.
  • Atkeson, Lonna Rae, & Partin, Randall W. (1995). Economic and referendum voting: a comparison of gubernatorial and senate elections. The American Political Science Review, 89, 99-107.
  • Atkeson, Lonna R., & Partin, Randall W. (2001). Candidate advertisements, media coverage, and citizen attitudes: The agendas and roles of senators and governors in a federal system. Political Research Quarterly, 54(4), 795-813.
  • Baldassare, Mark.  (2005).  The Role of Public Opinion on the California Governor’s Recall in 2003: Populism, Partisanship, and Direct Democracy.  American Politics Research. Vol. 33: pp. 163 – 186.
  • Bardwell, Kedron. (2003). Not All Money Is Equal: The Differential Effect of Spending by Incumbents and Challengers in Gubernatorial Primaries. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. September. 3: 294-308.
  • Bardwell, Kedron. (2002). Money and challenger emergence in gubernatorial primaries. Political Research Quarterly, 55(3), 653-668.
  • Bardwell, Kedron. (2005). Reevaluating spending in gubernatorial races: Job approval as a baseline for spending. Political Research Quarterly, 58(1), 97-105.
  • Beck, Paul A., Baum, Lawrence, Clausen, Aage R., & Smith, Charles E. (1992). Patterns and sources of ticket splitting in subpresidential voting. American Political Science Association, 86(4), 916-928.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1983). The cost of becoming governor. State Government56, 74-84.
  • Beyle, Thad. (1985). Gubernatorial transitions: The 1982 elections. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • Beyle, Thad, ed. (1986). Re-electing the governor: The 1982 elections. Lanham, NY: University Press of America.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1986). The cost of becoming governor. Journal of State Government, 59, 95-101.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1990). Costs of gubernatorial campaigns: 1987. Comparative State Politics (pp. 28-29). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (1990). Costs of gubernatorial campaigns: 1988. Comparative State Politics (pp. 30-32). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
  • Beyle, Thad L. (2002). Increased competition drives up costs of races. North Carolina DataNet, 30(3).
  • Bibby, John F. (1983). Patterns in midterm gubernatorial and state legislative elections. Public Opinion, 6, 41-46.
  • Bibby, John F. (1987). The 1986 midterm elections for governor and state legislatures: A modest departure from past patterns. Publius 17:67-82.
  • Brown, Adam R.. (2013). Does Money Buy Votes? The Case of Self-Financed Gubernatorial Candidates, 1998-2008. Political Behavior. March. 35(1): 21-42.
  • Brown, Adam R.. (2010). Are Governors Responsible for the State Economy? Partisanship, Blame, and Divided Federalism. Journal of Politics. 72 (July): 605-615.
  • Brown, Adam R., & Jacobson, Gary C. (2008). Party performance and strategic politicians: The dynamics of elections for senator and governor in 2006. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 8, 384 – 411.
  • Carsey, Thomas M.  (2001). Campaign Dynamics: The Race for Governor.  Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  • Carsey, Thomas M., & Jackson, Robert A. (2001). Misreport of vote choice in us senate and gubernatorial elections. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 1, 196 – 211.
  • Carsey, Thomas M., Jackson, Robert A., Stewart, Melissa, and Nelson, James P.. (2011). Strategic Candidates, Campaign Dynamics, and Campaign Advertising in Gubernatorial Races. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. September. 11: 269-298.
  • Carsey, Thomas M., & Wright, Gerald. (1998). State and national factors in gubernatorial and senatorial elections. American Journal of Political Science, 42(3), 994-1002.
  • Chandler, William and Kousser, Thad. (2008). “Governors, Geography, and Direct Democracy: The Case of Arnold Schwarzenegger,” in Frederick Douzet, Thad Kousser, and Ken Miller, editors, The New Political Geography of California. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Governmental Studies Press.
  • Chubb, J. E. . (1988). Institutions, the economy, and the dynamics of state elections. American Political Science Review, 82, 133-152.
  • Dowling, Conor M., & Lem, Steve B. (2009). Major and third party candidate entry in us gubernatorial elections, 1980 – 2005. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 9(1), 1 – 14.
  • Eismeier, Theodore J. (1983). Votes and taxes: The political economy of the American governorship. Polity, 15, 368-379.
  • Fox, Richard L., & Oxley, Zoe M. (2003). Gender stereotypes in state executive elections: Candidate selection and success. Journal of Politics, 65(3), 833-850.
  • Glashan, Roy R., comp. (1975).  American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1975. Stillwater, MN: The Croixside Press
  • Harris, Louis. (1959). Why the odds are against a governor. Public Opinion Quarterly, 23(3), 361-370.
  • Hogan, R.E. (2005). Gubernatorial coattail effects in state legislative elections. Political Research Quarterly, 58(4), 587-597.
  • Holbrook, Thomas M. (1987). National factors in gubernatorial elections. American Politics Quarterly, 15, 471-483.
  • Holbrook, Thomas M. (1993). Institutional strength and gubernatorial elections. American Politics Quarterly, 21, 261-271.
  • Howell, Susan, and Vanderleeuw, James. (1990). The effect of state economic condition on the vote for governor. Social Science Quarterly 64:154-62
  • Huddy, Leonie, & Terkildsen, Nayda. (1993). The consequences of gender stereotypes for women candidates at different levels and types of offices. Political Research Quarterly, 46(3), 503-525.
  • Jewell, Malcolm E. (1977). Voting turnout in state gubernatorial primaries. Western Political Science Association, 30(2), 236-254.
  • Jewell, Malcolm E. (1984). Parties and primaries: Nominating state governors. New York: Praegar.
  • Kang, Insun, Niemi, Richard G., and Powell, Lynda W. (2003). Strategic Candidate Decision-making and Competition in Gubernatorial Non-incumbent-Party Primaries. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. December. 3: 353-366.
  • Kenney, Patrick J. (1983). The effect of state economic conditions on the vote for governor. Social Science Quarterly, 64, 154-62.
  • Kenney, Patrick J., & Rice, Tom W. (1984). The effect of primary divisiveness in gubernatorial and senatorial elections. Journal of Politics, 46, 904-915.
  • King, James D. (2001). Incumbent popularity and vote choice in gubernatorial elections. The Journal of Politics, 63(2), 585-597.
  • Klain, M. (1955). A new look at the constituencies: The need for a recount and a reappraisal. American Political Science Review, 49, 1105-1119.
  • Kone, SL, & Winters, RF. (1993). Taxes and voting: Electoral retribution in the American states. The Journal of Politics55(1), 22-40.
  • Leal, David A. (2006). Electing America’s Governors.  New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Leyden, Kevin M., and Borrelli, Stephen A.. (1995). “The effect of State Economic Conditions on Gubernatorial Elections: Does Unified Government Make a Difference?”  Political Research Quarterly 48(June): 275-90.
  • Masket, Seth E.  (2011). The Circus That Wasn’t: The Republican Party’s Quest for Order in California’s (2003) Gubernatorial Recall Election. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. June. 11: 123-147.
  • McNitt, Andrew D., & Seroka, J. (1981). Intraparty challenges of incumbent governors and senators. American Politics Quarterly5, 321-340.
  • McNitt, Andrew D. (1982). A comparison of explanations of competition for gubernatorial and senatorial nomination: 1954-1974. The Western Political Quarterly. 35(2), 245-257.
  • Morehouse, Sarah McCally. (1990). Money versus party effort: Nominating for governor. American Journal of Political Science, 34, 706-724.
  • Mullaney, Marie Marmo. (1988).  American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1979-1987.  Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Nagel, J. H. & McNulty, J. E. (1996). Partisan effects of voter turnout in senatorial and gubernatorial elections. American Political Science Review, 90, 780-793.
  • Niemi, Richard G., Stanley, Harold W., & Vogel, Ronald J. (1995). State economies and state taxes: Do voters hold governors accountable? American Journal of Political Science, 39(4), 936-957.
  • Partin, Randall. (1995). Economic conditions and gubernatorial elections: Is the state executive held accountable? American Politics Quarterly, 23, 81-95.
  • Partin, Randall. (2001).  Campaign Intensity and Voter Information: A Look at Gubernatorial Contests.  American Politics Research. Vol. 29: pp. 115-140.
  • Partin, Randall W. (2002). Assessing the impact of campaign spending in governor’s races. Political Research Quarterly, 30, 213-233.
  • Patterson, Samuel C. (1982). Spending in contests for governor. The Western Political Quarterly, 35(4), 457-477.
  • Patterson, Samuel C., & Caldeira, Gregory A. (1983). Getting out the vote: Participation in gubernatorial elections. The American Political Science Review, 77, 675-689.
  • Peltzman, Sam. (1987). Economic conditions and gubernatorial elections. American Economic Review, 77, 293-297.
  • Piereson, James E. (1975). Presidential popularity and midterm voting at different electoral levels. American Journal of Political Science, 19(4), 683-694.
  • Piereson, James E. (1977). Sources of candidate success in gubernatorial elections, 1910-1970. Journal of Politics, 39, 939-958.
  • Pomper, Gerald. (1968). “Governors, money, and votes.”  In Gerald Pomper (ed.), Elections in American. New York: Dodd, Mead.
  • Quail Hill, Kim, & Leighley, Jan E. (1993). Party ideology, organization and competitiveness as mobilizing forces in gubernatorial elections. Journal of Political Science, 37(4), 1158-1178.
  • Rice, Tom W. (1985). Gubernatorial and senatorial primary elections: Determinants of competition. American Politics Quarterly, 13, 427-446.
  • Rudolph, Thomas. (2003). Institutional Context and the Assignment of Political Responsibility. The Journal of Politics. 65:190–215.
  • Schlesinger, J.A. (1960). Stability in the vote for governor, 1900-1958. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 24(1), 85-91.
  • Seroka, Jim (1980). Incumbency and reelection: Governors versus U.S. senators.  State Government 52:161-65.
  • Sigelman, Lee. (1989). Voting in gubernatorial succession referenda: The incumbency cue. The Journal of Politics, 51(4), 869-885.
  • Simon, Dennis M. (1989). Presidents, governors, and electoral accountability. Journal of Politics, 51, 286-304.
  • Simon, Dennis M., Ostrom, Charles W., & Marra, Robin F. (1991). The president, referendum voting and subnational elections in the United States. The American Political Science Review, 85(4), 1117-1192.
  • Soss, Joe & Canon, David T. (1995). Partisan divisions and voting decisions: U.S. senators, governors, and the rise of a divided federal government. Political Research Quarterly, 48(2), 253-274.
  • Squire, Peverill. (1992). Challenger profile and gubernatorial elections. Western Political Quarterly, 28, 125-142.
  • Squire, Peverill, & Fastnow, Christina. (1994). Comparing gubernatorial and senatorial elections. Western Political Quarterly, 47, 705-720.
  • Stein, Robert. (1990). Economic voting for governor and U.S. senator: The electoral consequences of federalism. Journal of Politics, 52, 29-53.
  • Svoboda, Craig J. (1995). Retrospective voting in gubernatorial elections: 1982 and 1986. Political Research Quarterly, 48(1), 135-150.
  • Tidmarch, Charles M., Hyman, Lisa J., & Sorkin, Jill E. (1984). Press issue agendas in the 1982 congressional and gubernatorial election campaigns. Journal of Politics, 46, 1226-1242.
  • Tompkin, Mark E. (1984). The electoral fortunes on gubernatorial incumbents: 1947-1981. Journal of Politics, 46, 520-539.
  • Tompkin, Mark E. (1988). Have gubernatorial elections become more distinctive contests? Journal of Politics, 50, 192-205.
  • Turrett, J. Stephen. (1971). The vulnerability of American governors, 1900-1969. American Journal of Political Science, 15, 108-132.
  • Weber, R. E. . (1991). Gubernatorial coattails: A vanishing phenomenon? State Government, 53, 153-156.
  • Windett, Jason Harold.  (2011) State Effects and the Emergence and Success of Female Gubernatorial Candidates. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. December. 11: 460-482.

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Public Perception:  Gubernatorial Job Approval Ratings

  • Adams, G, & Squire, Peverill. (2001). A note on the dynamics and idiosyncrasies of gubernatorial popularity. State Politics & Policies Quarterly1, 390-393.
  • Alt, James E., Lassen, David Dryer, & Skilling, David. (2002). Fiscal transparency, gubernatorial approval, and the scale of government: Evidence from the states. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 2, 230 – 252.
  • Barth, Jay, and Ferguson, Margaret. (2002). American Governors and their constituents: The relationship between gubernatorial personality and public approval. State Politics and Policy Quarterly 2:268-84.
  • Beyle, Thad. (1992) Gubernatorial job performance ratings: The new state cottage industry. Comparative State Politics 13(3): 40-3.
  • Beyle, Thad (1994). Rating the nation’s governors. The Polling Report 10(21):1,4.
  • Beyle Thad. (1995). Gubernatorial report cards: Summer, 1994. Spectrum: The Journal of State Government. 68(2)-14-20.
  • Beyle, Thad L., Niemi, Richard G., & Sigelman, Lee. (2002). Gubernatorial, senatorial and state-level presidential approval: The U.S. officials job approval ratings collection. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 2, 215-229.
  • Beyle, Thad L., & Williams, Oliver. (Eds). (1972). The American governor in behavioral perspective. New York City: Harper & Row.
  • Cohen, Jeffrey E. (1983). Gubernatorial popularity in nine states.  American Politics Quarterly11, 219-235.
  • Cohen, Jeffrey E., & King, James D. (2004). Relative unemployment for gubernatorial popularity. The Journal of Politics66(4), 1267-1282.
  • Crew, RE, & Weiher, GR. (1996). Gubernatorial popularity in three states: A preliminary model. Social Science Journal33(1), 39-55.
  • Crew, Robert E., Jr., David Branham, Gregory R. Weiher, and Ethan Bernick. (2002). Political Events in a Model of Gubernatorial Approval. State Politics & Policy Quarterly. September. 2: 283-297.
  • Dometrius, Nelson C. (2002). Gubernatorial approval and administrative influence. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 2, 251 – 269.
  • Hansen, Susan B. (1999). Governors’ job performance ratings and unemployment: The case of California . State and Local Government Review31, 7-17.
  • Hansen, Susan B. (1999). “‘Life is not fair': Governors’ job performance ratings and state economies.” Political Research Quarterly52, 167-188. Link
  • Jensen, Jennifer M., & Beyle, Thad. (2003). Of footnotes, missing data, and lessons for 50-state data collection: The gubernatorial campaign finance project, 1977-2001. State Politics and Policy Quarterly, 3(2), 203-214.
  • Kelleher, Christine A., & Wolak, Jennifer. (2007). Explaining public confidence in the branches of state government. Political Research Quarterly, 60(4), 707-721.
  • King, James D. (2001). Incumbent popularity and vote choice in gubernatorial elections. The Journal of Politics, 63(2), 585-597.
  • King, James D. and Cohen, Jeffrey E.. (2005). What Determines a Governor’s Popularity? State Politics & Policy Quarterly. September. 5: 225-247.
  • MacDonald, Jason A., and Sigelman, Lee. (1999). Public assessments of gubernatorial performance: A comparative state analysis. American Politics Research 27 (2):201-15.

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State Constitutions and the Judiciary

  • Dubois, Philip and Floyd Feeney. (1998). Lawmaking by Initiative.  New York, NY: Agathon Press.
  • Lammers, William W. and David Klingman. (1986).  Durable Governors as Political Leaders: Should We Limit Tenure?” Publius; The Journal of Federalism, Spring 1986; 16: pp. 53-72
  • Lopeman, Charles S. (1999).  The Activist Advocate: Policy Making in State Supreme Courts.  Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
  • Maddex, Robert. (2006). State Constitutions in the United States (2nd ed.) Washington, DC: CQ Press.
  • Miller, Kenneth P. (2005). The Davis Recall and the Courts. American Politics Research, March; vol. 33: pp. 135- 162
  • Solimine, Michael E. and James L. Walker. (1999). Respecting State Courts: The Inevitability of Judicial Federalism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Tarr, G. Alan. (1996).  Constitutional Politics in the States: Contemporary Controversies and Historical Patterns.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Tarr, G. Alan. (1998). Understanding State Constitutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Tarr, G. Alan and Robert Williams. (2006).  State Constitutions for the Twenty-first Century, (3 volumes 2005-06). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

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